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Use toLowerCase() method of Character class to convert a character to lower case.
char ch = 'A';
ch = Character.toLowerCase(ch);
An abstract data type is like a user-defined data type which describes components of any data and what operations can be performed which is independent of the implementation.
List numbers = new ArrayList();
Here List is an abstract data type which defines what operations can be performed and the components of the numbers but it doesn’t have predefined underlying data structure.
The data structure is being implemented by ArrayList.
The main method is static so that it can be directly invoked by the run-time engine (e.g JVM) without having to instantiate any objects.